TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES - RULES AND EXAMPLES

Transformation in English grammar refers to the process of changing the form or structure of a sentence while retaining its original meaning. This can involve altering word order, changing verb tense, substituting words, or using different grammatical structures. Transformation is often used in writing notes to summarize or paraphrase information in a concise and clear manner. Here are some common types of transformations used in English grammar:

1. CHANGING VERB TENSE: 

This involves converting verbs from one tense to another to convey the same meaning. For example, changing a present tense verb to past tense or future tense.

Example: "She walks to school every day." → "She walked to school every day."

2. PASSIVE VOICE TO ACTIVE VOICE:

Transforming sentences from passive voice to active voice can make them more direct and easier to understand.

Example: "The book was read by him." → "He read the book."

3. DIRECT TO INDIRECT SPEECH (REPORTED SPEECH):

This involves reporting what someone else has said without using their exact words. It often requires changing pronouns, verb tenses, and sometimes word order. Example: 

Direct speech: "She said, 'I will come tomorrow.'" 
Indirect speech: "She said that she would come the next day."

4. CHANGING WORD ORDER:

Altering the order of words in a sentence while maintaining its meaning.

Example: "He often goes to the gym after work." → "After work, he often goes to the gym."

5. SUBSTITUTION OF WORDS OR PHRASES: 

Replacing words or phrases with synonyms or alternative expressions to convey the same meaning.

Example: "The dog barked loudly." → "The dog made a loud noise."

6. COMBINING SENTENCES: 

Merging two or more sentences into one to eliminate redundancy or to express ideas more concisely.

Example: "John likes to read books. He often goes to the library." → "John, who often goes to the library, likes to read books."

7. CHANGING MODALITY:

Adjusting the certainty or possibility expressed in a sentence, often through modal verbs such as can, could, may, might, must, should, etc.

Example: "He will pass the exam." → "He should pass the exam."

8. USING NOMINALIZATION: 

Transforming verbs or adjectives into nouns to convey information more compactly.

Example: "He made an improvement in his writing skills." → "He improved his writing skills."

When writing notes, it's essential to choose transformations that preserve the original meaning while making the information more concise and clear. Practicing these transformations can improve writing skills and help in summarizing complex information effectively.

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