It is referred to as "pronoun substitution" or "lexical substitution" in English grammar. It involves replacing a word or phrase with another word to avoid repetition or to refer back to something previously mentioned. This technique helps in maintaining coherence and avoiding redundancy in writing or speech. 

Here's a brief explanation of each of the examples:

1. Do/Does: Used as auxiliary verbs or for emphasis.

Example: "She likes ice cream, and so does he."

2. One/Ones: Used to avoid repetition of a noun.

Example: "I prefer the red apples; she likes the green ones."

3. Here/There: Used to indicate location.

Example: "I left my keys here, but now they're over there."

4. That/This: Used to refer to something previously mentioned.

Example: "I have two books. This one is my favorite, and that one is interesting too."

5. So: Used to indicate a result or consequence.

Example: "It was raining, so we stayed indoors."

6. Then: Used to indicate a sequence or order of events.

Example: "First, we'll prepare the ingredients; then, we'll start cooking."

These substitutions help to maintain fluency and coherence in writing or speech by avoiding unnecessary repetition of words or phrases.


Substitution in English grammar involves replacing specific words or phrases with shorter forms or symbols while maintaining the essential meaning of the sentence. It's commonly used in note-taking to condense information quickly and efficiently. 


1. ABBREVIATIONS: Shortened forms of words or phrases.

- e.g., "Govt." for "government", "abbr." for "abbreviation".

2. ACRONYMS: Words formed from the initial letters of other words.

- e.g., "NASA" for "National Aeronautics and Space Administration".

3. SYMBOLS: Representations of common words or concepts.

- e.g., "&" for "and", "$" for "dollar".


1. Identify Key Terms: Determine which words or phrases can be substituted without losing meaning.

2. Select Substitution: Choose appropriate abbreviations, acronyms, or symbols for the identified terms.

3. Consistency: Use the same substitutions consistently throughout the notes for clarity.

4. Contextual Understanding: Ensure that the substitutions make sense within the context of the notes.


1. Original Sentence: The government announced new policies to tackle climate change.

Substituted Note: Govt. announced new policies to tackle climate change.

2. Original Sentence: The meeting is scheduled for Monday, September 15th, 2024.

Substituted Note: Meeting on Mon, Sep 15, 2024.

3. Original Sentence: The project manager will lead the team during the development phase.

Substituted Note: PM will lead team during dev phase.

4. Original Sentence: The cost of the new equipment is two thousand five hundred dollars.

Substituted Note: Cost of new equip is $2500.

5. Original Sentence: Please bring your identification card for registration.

Substituted Note: Pls bring ID for reg.

In summary, substitution in note-taking involves replacing words or phrases with shorter forms or symbols, aiding in efficiency, conciseness, and clarity. However, it requires careful selection and consistent application to ensure effectiveness.

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