GRAMMAR - CASE, DEFINITION AND TYPES

DEFINITION & TYPES OF THE CASE

Cases in English indicate the grammatical functions of nouns and pronouns based on their relationships with other words in a sentence. 

In modern English, there are three primary cases:

1. SUBJECTIVE CASE: Used for the subject of a sentence, indicating the entity performing the action.

2. OBJECTIVE CASE: Used for the object of a verb or preposition, indicating the entity receiving the action.

3. POSSESSIVE CASE: Indicates ownership or possession, showing that something belongs to someone or something else.

Subjective Objective Possessive
I
We
You
He
She
They
It
Who
Me
Us
You
Him
Her
Them
It
Whom
My, mine
Our, ours
Your, yours
His
Her, hers
Their, theirs
Its
Whose

When writing notes in English, understanding the differences between subjective, objective, and possessive forms is essential for clarity and accuracy. Here's a short note of each:

1. SUBJECTIVE CASE:

The subjective case is used for the subject of a sentence or clause, i.e., the person or thing performing the action. In English, pronouns change form depending on whether they are the subject or object of a sentence. For example: Subjective Case Pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they)

Example: She is going to the store.

2. OBJECTIVE CASE: 

The objective case is used for the object of a verb or preposition. It indicates the person or thing that receives the action. Objective case pronouns are used when the pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition. Example: Objective Case Pronouns (me, you, him, her, it, us, them)

Example: The teacher gave me the book.

3. POSSESSIVE CASE:

The possessive case is used to indicate ownership or possession. It's used to show that something belongs to someone or something else. In English, possessive forms are typically formed by adding an apostrophe followed by an "s" ('s) to a noun or a possessive pronoun. 

However, there are exceptions, particularly with personal pronouns. Example: Possessive Case Pronouns (my/mine, your/yours, his, her/hers, its, our/ours, their/theirs)

Example: His car is parked outside.

Conclusion:

When taking notes, it's crucial to use the appropriate case to convey the intended meaning clearly. Misuse of these cases can lead to confusion or ambiguity in your writing. 

Pay attention to the function of each word in the sentence to determine which case to use. Additionally, be mindful of possessive pronouns versus possessive adjectives (e.g., "his" versus "he's") to ensure accuracy in your notes.

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