GRAMMAR - THE VERB (क्रिया), DEFINITION AND TYPES

DEFINITION OF THE VERB

 A verb is a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence. It is one of the main parts of speech in English.

क्रिया एक ऐसा शब्द है जिसका उपयोग किसी क्रिया, स्थिति या घटना का वर्णन करने के लिए किया जाता है।

TYPES OF VERBS   

1.  Action Verbs: 

These verbs express physical or mental actions. Example: "run," "eat," "think." 

It has two type: Transitive and Intransitive verb

Transitive verb:

The verb with which the object is used is called transitive verb.

जिस क्रिया के साथ कर्म का प्रयोग किया जाता है, उसे सकर्मक क्रिया कहते हैं। जैसे:

  • He drinks milk.
  • You play cricket.
  • Pallavi sings a song.

Intransitive verb:

The verb with which object is not used, yet the meaning of the sentence is clear, is called intransitive verb.

जिस क्रिया के साथ कर्म का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है, फिर भी वाक्य का अर्थ स्पष्ट हो, उसे अकर्मक क्रिया कहते हैं। जैसे:

  • He drinks.
  • You play.
  • Pallavi sings.
  • He died.

2. Linking Verbs: 

These verbs connect the subject of a sentence to a subject complement (noun, pronoun, or adjective) that provides more information about the subject. Example: "is," "seems," "become."

3. Helping Verbs (Auxiliary Verbs): 

These verbs are used alongside main verbs to express shades of time, mood, or aspect. Example: have, be, will, is, am, are, was, were, do, does, did, shall, ha, have, had, should, would, could, can, may, might, must, etc.

VERB'S IMPORTANCE IN TENSES 

Verbs change forms to indicate the time of an action or state. The main tenses in English are:

Present Tense: Indicates an action or state that is currently happening or generally true.

Past Tense: Indicates an action or state that has already happened.

Future Tense: Indicates an action or state that will happen.

Present Perfect: Indicates an action that occurred at an unspecified time in the past or began in the past and continues into the present.

Past Perfect: Indicates an action completed before a certain point in the past.

Future Perfect: Indicates an action that will be completed at a specific time in the future.

Continuous/Progressive Tenses: Indicate actions that are ongoing or in progress at a particular time.

Perfect Continuous Tenses: Indicate actions that began in the past and continue up to the present or will continue into the future.

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

Verbs must agree in number (singular or plural) with their subjects. For example, "He runs" (singular subject) versus "They run" (plural subject).

MODAL VERBS

Modal verbs express necessity, possibility, permission, or ability. Examples include "can," "may," "must," "should."

VOICE

Verbs can be in either active or passive voice. In active voice, the subject performs the action expressed by the verb, while in passive voice, the subject receives the action.

INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS

Infinitives are the base form of a verb (e.g., "to walk"), while gerunds are verbs that function as nouns by adding "-ing" (e.g., "walking").

FORMS OF THE VERB

There are five forms of verb in English grammar:

1. First / Base Form (Present)
2. Second Form (Past)
3. Third Form (Past participle)
4. ing Form (Present participle)
5. -s / -es Form (Singular)

These are some fundamental aspects of verbs in English grammar. Understanding these concepts can help in effectively using and understanding the role of verbs in constructing sentences.

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