ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE, DEFINITION AND TYPES

In English grammar, the active and passive voices are two different ways of constructing sentences based on the relationship between the subject and the action being performed. 

DEFINITION OF THE VOICE

The form of the verb in which one can know which of the subject and object has priority is called Voice

क्रिया के जिस रूप से यह ज्ञान प्राप्त हो कि कर्ता व कर्म में से किसकी प्रधानता है, वाच्य कहलाती है।

DEFINITION OF ACTIVE VOICE

In active voice the subject has predominance. In this the subject does his own work.

Active voice (कर्तृवाच्य) में कर्ता की प्रधानता होती है। इसमें कर्ता अपना कार्य स्वयं करता है।

In active voice sentences, the subject performs the action expressed by the verb. This form is often more direct, clearer, and preferred for most types of writing because it's concise and straightforward.

Structure: Subject + Verb + Object

Example: The cat chased the mouse.

DEFINITION OF  PASSIVE VOICE

In passive voice, action (object) has priority. In this the work is done by someone else.

Passive voice (कर्मवाच्य) में कर्म की प्रधानता होती है। इसमें कर्म किसी दूसरे के द्वारा करवाया  जाता है।

In passive voice sentences, the subject is the receiver of the action rather than the doer. The focus is shifted from the subject to what is being done to the subject. 

Passive voice is used less frequently than active voice but can be useful in certain contexts, such as when the performer of the action is unknown or when the emphasis is on the action itself rather than the doer. 

Example: The mouse was chased by the cat.

ACTIVE VOICE से PASSIVE VOICE बनाना

[A] Total 12 Tenses में से केवल 8 Tenses की ही Active voice से Passive voice बनती है। साथ ही Intransitive verb (अकर्मक क्रिया) वाले वाक्यों की भी Passive voice नहीं बनायी जाती है। जिन 4 Tenses की Passive voice नहीं बनती, उनके नाम इस प्रकार हैं:

  • Present Perfect Continuous Tense
  • Past Perfect Continuous Tense
  • Future Continuous Tense
  • Future Perfect Continuous Tense

[B] Active voice से Passive voice बनाते समय Object को Subject बना दिया जाता है और Subject को Object बना दिया जाता है।

[C] Passive voice बनाते समय सदैव मुख्य क्रिया (Main verb) की Third form का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

[D] Active voice से Passive voice बनाते समय Tense के अनुसार सहायक क्रिया (Helping verb) का प्रयोग किया जाता है। 

ACTIVE VOICE  PASSIVE VOICE HELPING VERB
1. Present Indefinite Tense is/am/are
2. Present Continuous Tense is/am/are + being
3. Present Perfect Tense has/have + been
4. Past Indefinite Tense was/were
5. Past Continuous Tense was/were + being
6. Past Perfect Tense had been
7. Future Indefinite Tense will/shall + be
8. Future Perfect Tense will/shall + have been

यदि Active voice वाक्य में Subject के रूप में Personal pronoun है, तो Passive voice बनाते समय उन्हें निम्नलिखित तरीके से बदल दिया जाता है:

ACTIVE VOICE SUBJECT  PASSIVE VOICE OBJECT
 I  me
 We us
 You you
 They them
 He him
 She her
 It it
 Whowhom

ACTIVE V. से PASSIVE VOICE बनाना

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE
[Active Voice] Subject + Verb Ⅰ form + s/es + Object + .
[P.V] Object + is/am/are  + Verb Ⅲ form + by + Subject + .
NEGATIVE SENTENCE
[A.V] Subject + do/does + not + Verb Ⅰ form + Object + .
[P.V] Object + is/am/are + not  + Verb Ⅲ form + by + Subject + .
INTERROGATIVE FIRST TYPE
[A.V] Do/Does + Subject + not + Verb Ⅰ form + Object + ?
[P.V] Is/Am/Are +Object + not  + Verb Ⅲ form + by + Subject + ?
INTERROGATIVE SECOND TYPE
[A.V] Question word + Do/Does + Subject + not + Verb Ⅰ form + Object + ?
[P.V] Question word + Is/Am/Are +Object + not  + Verb Ⅲ form + by + Subject + ?
INTERROGATIVE WITH Who Q.W.
[A.V] Who + not + Verb Ⅰ form + Object + ?
[P.V] By whom + Is/Am/Are +Object + not  + Verb Ⅲ form + ?

Understanding when to use active vs. passive voice is important for effective communication and writing clarity. In general, active voice is preferred for most situations, but passive voice has its place in certain contexts.

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