DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH, DEFINITION AND KEY POINTS

Direct and indirect speech are two ways of reporting what someone else has said. Here's an overview of both:

DEFINITION OF DIRECT SPEECH

In direct speech, the exact words spoken by a person are quoted within quotation marks. Direct speech is often used in narratives and conversations to provide immediacy and to convey the speaker's tone and style accurately.

In direct speech, the speaker's exact words are reproduced, maintaining their original form, including tense, pronouns, and any other linguistic features. Example:

Direct speech: John said, "I am going to the store."

DEFINITION OF INDIRECT SPEECH

In indirect speech (Reported Speech), the speaker reports what someone else has said without quoting their exact words. Indirect speech often involves a shift in verb tense, pronouns, and sometimes word order to reflect the change in perspective from the original speaker to the reporting speaker.

Instead, the speaker conveys the meaning of the original statement using their own words and often changing pronouns, verb tenses, and other linguistic elements to reflect the shift in perspective from the original speaker to the reporting speaker. Example:

Indirect speech: John said that he was going to the store.

KEY POINTS ABOUT INDIRECT SPEECH

1. Changes in Pronouns and Verb Tenses:

Pronouns often change to reflect the new speaker's perspective.

Verb tenses may change depending on the tense of the original statement and the context of reporting.

2. Reporting Verbs:

Verbs such as "say," "tell," "ask," etc., are used to introduce indirect speech.

These reporting verbs can be followed by a conjunction like "that" or sometimes by phrases like "whether," "if," etc.

3. Changes in Time and Place Expressions:

Time and place expressions may need to be adjusted to reflect the new context or time of reporting.

4. Back-shifting:

In reported speech, often there's a backshift in time expressions when the original statement is in the past tense. Example:

Original statement: "I am tired." (Present tense)
Direct speech: She said, "I am tired."
Indirect speech: She said that she was tired. (Back-shifted tense)

5. Punctuation:

In direct speech, the exact words are enclosed in quotation marks.

In indirect speech, quotation marks are not used.  Example:

Direct speech: "I love you," she said.
Indirect speech: She said that she loved him.

Understanding direct and indirect speech is essential for effective communication and writing, especially in storytelling, journalism, and reporting conversations.

#buttons=(Accept !) #days=(20)

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Learn More
Accept !