GRAMMAR - AN INTRODUCTION

DEFINITION OF GRAMMAR:

The analysis and interpretation of every part of any language is called grammar.
किसी भी "भाषा" के अंग-प्रत्यंग का विश्लेषण तथा विवेचन "व्याकरण" कहलाता है।

A reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a "Reference Grammar" or simply "Grammar".
किसी भाषा के व्याकरण का वर्णन करने वाली संदर्भ पुस्तक को "संदर्भ व्याकरण" या "व्याकरण" कहा जाता है।

HISTORY OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR:

The history of English grammar begins in the late sixteenth century with the grammar pamphlet by William Bullocker.
अंग्रेजी व्याकरण का इतिहास सोलहवीं शताब्दी के अंत में विलियम बुलोकर द्वारा व्याकरण के पैम्फलेट के साथ शुरू होता है। 

Taking the Latin grammar of William Lyly as his model, Bullocker wrote the first published grammar of the English language in the book Brief Grammar for English, which appeared in 1586.
विलियम लिली के लैटिन व्याकरण को अपने मॉडल के रूप में लेते हुए,  बुल्लोकर ने अंग्रेजी भाषा का पहला प्रकाशित व्याकरण ब्रीफ ग्रामर फॉर इंग्लिश नामक पुस्तक में लिखा , जो 1586 में छपी। 

Bullokar's alphabet.

TIMELINE OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR:

  • 1551. John Hart: The Opening of the Unreasonable Writing of our Inglish Toung
  • 1586. William Bullokar: Brief Grammar of English.
  • 1594. Paul Greaves: Grammatica Anglicana.
  • 1612. Thomas Tomkis :De Analogia Anglicani Sermoni liber Grammaticus, Royal Manuscript Collection of the British Library
  • 1617. Alexander Hume: Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue.
  • 1619/1621. Alexander Gill: Logonomia Anglica.
  • 1634. Charles Butler: English Grammar.
  • 1640. Ben Jonson: The English Grammar.
  • 1646. Joshua Poole: The English Accidence.
  • 1653. John Wallis: Grammatica Linguæ Anglicanæ.
  • 1654. Jeremiah Wharton: The English Grammar.
  • 1662. James Howell: A New English Grammar.
  • 1669. John Newton: School Pastime for Young Children: or the Rudiments of Grammar.
  • 1671. Thomas Lye: The Child's Delight.
  • 1685. Christopher Cooper: Grammatica Linguæ Anglicanæ.
  • 1688. Guy Miège: The English Grammar.
  • 1693. Joseph Aickin: The English grammar.
  • 1700. A. Lane: A Key to the Art of Letters.
  • 1745. Ann Fisher A New Grammar.
  • 1761. Joseph Priestley: The Rudiments of English Grammar:Adapted to the Use of Schools.
  • 1762. Robert Lowth: A short introduction to English grammar: with critical notes.
  • 1763. John Ash: Grammatical institutes: or, An easy introduction to Dr. Lowth's English grammar.
  • 1765. William Ward: An Essay on English Grammar.
  • 1766. Samuel Johnson: A dictionary of the English Language...: to which is prefixed, a Grammar of the English Language.
  • 1772. Joseph Priestley: The Rudiments of English Grammar: Adapted to the Use of Schools.
  • 1775. Ellin Devis: The Accidence
  • 1772. Dorothea Du Bois: Short English Grammar
  • 1795. Lindley Murray: English grammar: adapted to the different classes of learners.
  • 1799. Jane Gardiner: Young Ladies’ Grammar
  • 1804. Noah Webster: A Grammatical Institute of the English Language.
  • 1809. William Hazlitt: A New and Improved Grammar of the English Tongue
  • 1818. William Cobbett: A Grammar of the English Language, In a Series of Letters.
  • 1850. William Chauncey Fowler: English grammar: The English language in its elements and forms.
  • 1874. Eduard Adolf Maetzner, An English grammar: methodical, analytical, and historical. With a treatise on the orthography, prosody, inflections and syntax of the English tongue, and numerous authorities cited in order of historical development. (English translation of Englische Grammatik (1860–65)).
  • 1892/98. Henry Sweet: A New English Grammar, Logical and Historical (Part 1: Introduction, Phonology, and Accidence; Part 2: Syntax).
  • 1898. John Nesfield. A Manual of English Grammar and Composition.
  • 1904–1929. Hendrik Poutsma: A Grammar of Modern English (5 volumes).
  • 1909–1932. Etsko Kruisinga: A Handbook of Present-day English
  • 1909–1949. Otto Jespersen: A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles.
  • 1931/1935. George O. Curme: A Grammar of the English Language.
  • 1945. R. W. Zandvoort: A Handbook of English Grammar.
  • 1952. Charles C. Fries: The Structure of English: An Introduction to the Construction of English Sentences.
  • 1984. M. A. K. Halliday: An Introduction to Functional Grammar.
  • 1985. Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik: A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language.
  • 1996 Sidney Greenbaum, Oxford English Grammar. 652 pages.
  • 1999. Douglas Biber, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, and Edward Finegan: Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English.
  • 2002. Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey Pullum: The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. 1842 pages.
  • 2006. Ronald Carter and Michael McCarthy: Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive Guide. 973 pages.
  • 2011. Bas Aarts: Oxford Modern English Grammar. 410 pages.


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